ПОДІБНІСТЬ КИТАЙСЬКОЇ ІММІГРАЦІЇ ДО СПОЛУЧЕНИХ ШТАТІВ АМЕРИКИ ТА ДО АВСТРАЛІЇ У ДРУГІЙ ПОЛОВИНІ XIX СТОЛІТТЯ

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  Тхань Ван Нгок

  Буй Чук Лінь

Анотація

У другій половині ХІХ століття через різні причини, включаючи соціально-економічний хаос у Китаї та стан справ у Сполучених Штатах і в Австралії, а також великий прогрес морського транспорту, китайська еміграція різко зросла. Серед багатьох країн того часу моделі імміграції китайців до США та Австралії мали багато спільних рис, зокрема під час імміграції китайцям довелося зіткнутися з опором з боку як урядів, так і громадян. Незважаючи на таку дискримінацію, вони зробили свій внесок в економічний розвиток цих двох країн. І навпаки, зазнали негативного впливу соціально-економічних обставин обох країн через їхню торгівлю і вживання опіуму.

Як цитувати

Ван Нгок, Т., & Чук Лінь, Б. (2022). ПОДІБНІСТЬ КИТАЙСЬКОЇ ІММІГРАЦІЇ ДО СПОЛУЧЕНИХ ШТАТІВ АМЕРИКИ ТА ДО АВСТРАЛІЇ У ДРУГІЙ ПОЛОВИНІ XIX СТОЛІТТЯ. Східний світ, (2), 15-22. https://doi.org/10.15407/orientw2015.02.015
Переглядів статті: 18 | Завантажень PDF: 7

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Ключові слова

Австралія, китайська імміграція, Сполучені Штати Америки

Посилання

Ahmad, Diana L. The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth Century American West. Reno, 2007.

Ali, Bessie Ng Kumlin. Chinese in Fiji. Suva, Fiji, 2002.

Brook, Timothy and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839–1952. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2000.

Cassel, Susie Lan. The Chinese in America: A History from Golden Mountain to the New Millennium. Walnut Creek, CA, 2002.

Chan, Sucheng. This Bittersweet Soil (The Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860–1910). Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989.

Chen, Yong. Chinese San Francisco 1850–1943: A Trans-Pacific Community. Stanford, 2000.

Cheng, Lucie and Edna Bonacich. Labor Immigration under Capitalism: Asian Workers in the United States before World War II. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984.

Coghlan, T. A. Labour and Industry in Australia from the First Settlement in 1788 to the Establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901. Vol. 3. New York, 2011.

Courtwright, David T. Dark Paradise – A History of Opiate Addiction in America. Cambridge, 2001.

Dickens, Charles. Household Words – A Weekly Journal. Vol. XVII (from December 19th, 1857 to June 12th, 1858). London, 1858.

Dinh, Trinh Thi. Tình Hình Nhập Cư Vào Ốtxtrâylia Thời Kỳ Thuộc Địa (1788–1901) // Tạp Chí Nghiên Cứu Đông Nam Á. Số 5. 2006. (Immigration Situation to Australia during the Colonial Period (1788–1901) // Southeast Asian Studies. Vol. 5. 2006).

Ember, Melvin, Carol R. Ember and Ian A. Skoggard. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World. New York, 2005.

Jupp, James. The Australia People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge, 2001.

Laurie, Clayton D. and Cole, Ronald H. The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders 1877–1945. Washington D.C., 1997.

Lawrence, Susan and Peter Davies. An Archaeology of Australia since 1788. New York, 2010.

Marks, Lara and Michael Worboys. Migrants, Minorities and Health: Historical and Contemporary Studies. London, 1997.

McCain, Charles J. The Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth Century America. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1994.

Ownby, David and Heidhues, Mary F. Somers. “Secret Societies” Reconsidered: Perspectives on the Social History of Modern South China and Southeast Asia. New York, 1993.

Quinn, D. Michael. Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans. Urbana, 1996.

Rainford, John. Consuming Pleasures: Australia and the International Drug Business. North Fremantle, 2009.

Soennichsen, John. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Westport, 2011.

Stonham, John. Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia. No. 18. Melbourne, 1925.

Tan, Che Beng. Chinese Transnational Network. London and New York, 2007.

Vrachnas, John, Mirko Bagaric, Athula Pathinayake, and Penny Dimopoulos. Migration and Refugee Law: Principles and Practice in Australia. 3rd Edition. New York, 2012.

Wang, Sing-Wu. The Organization of Chinese Emigration, 1848–1888, with Special Reference to Chinese Emigration to Australia. San Francisco, 1978.

Yong, C. F. The New Gold Mountain: the Chinese in Australia. Richmond SA, 1977.

REFERENCES

Ahmad Diana L. (2007), The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth Century American West, University of Nevada Press, Reno.

Ali Bessie Ng Kumlin (2002), Chinese in Fiji, University of the South Pacific, Suva.

Brook Timothy and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2000), Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839–1952, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Cassel Susie Lan (2002), The Chinese in America: A History from Golden Mountain to the New Millennium, AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek.

Chan Sucheng (1989), This Bittersweet Soil (The Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860–1910), University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Chen Yong (2000), Chinese San Francisco 1850–1943: A Trans-Pacific Community, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Cheng Lucie and Edna Bonacich (1984), Labor Immigration under Capitalism: Asian Workers in the United States before World War II, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Coghlan T. A. (2011), Labour and Industry in Australia from the First Settlement in 1788 to the Establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901, Vol. 3, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Courtwright David T. (2001), Dark Paradise – A History of Opirate Addiction in America, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Dickens Charles (1858), Household Words – A Weekly Journal, Vol. XVII (from December 19th, 1857 to June 12th, 1858), Ward, Lock & Co, London.

Dinh Trinh Thi (2006), “Tình Hình Nhập Cư Vào Ốtxtrâylia Thời Kỳ Thuộc Địa (1788–1901)”, Tạp Chí Nghiên Cứu Đông Nam Á, No 5, pp. 27–33. (In Vietnamese).

Ember Melvin, Ember Carol R. and Skoggard Ian A. (2005), Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World, Spinger Science and Business Media, Inc., New York.

Jupp James (2001), The Australia People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Laurie Clayton D. and Cole Ronald H. (1997), The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders 1877–1945, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.

Lawrence Susan and Davies Peter (2010), An Archaeology of Australia since 1788, Springer, New York.

Marks Lara and Michael Worboys (1997), Migrants, Minorities and Health: Historical and Contemporary Studies, Routledge, London.

McCain Charles J. (1994), The Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth Century America, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Ownby David and Heidhues Mary F. Somers (1993), “Secret Societies” Reconsidered: Perspectives on the Social History of Modern South China and Southeast Asia, M. E. Sharpe Inc., New York.

Quinn D. Michael (1996), Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth Century-Americans, Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, Urbana.

Rainford John (2009), Consuming Pleasures: Australia and the International Drug Business, Fremantle Press, North Fremantle.

Soennichsen, John (2009), The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.

Stonham John (1925), Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, No. 18, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Melbourne.

Tan Che Beng (2007), Chinese Transnational Network, Routledge, London and New York.

Vrachnas John, Mirko Bagaric, Athula Pathinayake, and Penny Dimopoulos (2012), Migration and Refugee Law: Principles and Practice in Australia, 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Wang Sing-Wu (1978), The Organization of Chinese Emigration, 1848–1888, with Special Reference to Chinese Emigration to Australia, Chinese Materials Center Inc., San Francisco.

Yong C. F. (1977), The New Gold Mountain: the Chinese in Australia, University of Richmond, South Australia.