“НОВА ІНДІЙСЬКА ЖІНКА” ОЧИМА ВЕСТЕРНІЗОВАНИХ ЕЛІТ ПРЕЗИДЕНТСТВА МАДРАС (1860–1930 рр.)

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  М. М. Усольцева

Анотація

У статті аналізуються різні прочитання ідеї “нової індійської жінки” – освіченої представниці вестернізованої інтелігенції. У загальному сенсі ця ідея відсилає до нової соціальної ролі жінки із середовища середнього класу – репрезентанта “істинної ідентичності” освіченого індійця. Оскільки поняття “істинної ідентичності” визначалося специфічними економіко-географічними та соціокультурними параметрами того чи іншого інтелектуального середовища, ми вбачаємо “нову жінку” ключем до розуміння такої ідентичності, а також показником, що демонструє, як вирішувався компроміс між традицією та модернізацією в різних елітарних колах президентства Мадрас. Крім того, у статті приділяється увага аналізу жіночої інтерпретації цієї ідеї.

Як цитувати

Усольцева, М. М. (2015). “НОВА ІНДІЙСЬКА ЖІНКА” ОЧИМА ВЕСТЕРНІЗОВАНИХ ЕЛІТ ПРЕЗИДЕНТСТВА МАДРАС (1860–1930 рр.). Східний світ, (2), 46-56. https://doi.org/10.15407/orientw2015.02.046
Переглядів статті: 22 | Завантажень PDF: 12

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Ключові слова

вестернізовані еліти, Нова індійська жінка, президентство Мадрас

Посилання

Anandhi S. Middle Class Women in Colonial Tamilnadu, 1920–1947: Gender Relation and the Problem of Consciousness. New Delhi, 1992.

Anjaneyulu D. Builders of Modern India: Kandukuri Veeresalingam. New Delhi, 1976

Badran M. Dual liberation: Feminism and nationalism in Egypt, 1870s–1925 // Gender Issues. Т. 8. № 1. 1988.

Besant A. Shri Rama Chandra: the Ideal King. Some Lessons from the Ramayana. Benares – London, 1905.

Chatterjee P. Colonialism, Nationalism, and Colonialized Women: The Contest in India // American ethnologist. Vol. 16, № 4. 1989. https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1989.16.4.02a00020

Classical Telugu Poetry. An Anthology. California, 2004.

Forbes. G. & Forbes G. H. Women in modern India. Cambridge, 2008.

Ganesan U. Gender and Caste: Self-Respect Movement in the Madras Presidency, 1925–1950: Dis. University of Cincinnati, 2011.

George G. “Four makes society”: Women’s organisation, Dravidian nationalism and women’s interpretation of caste, gender and change in South India // Contribution to Indian sociology. Vol. 36, № 3. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1177/006996670203600303

Hancock M. Home science and the nationalization of domesticity in colonial India // Modern Asian Studies. Vol. 35, № 4. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X01004048

Hodges S. Revolutionary family life and the Self Respect movement in Tamil south India, 1926–49 // Contributions to Indian sociology. T. 39, № 2. 2005.

Hudson D. The Responses of Tamils to Their Study by Westerners 1608–1908 // Comparative Civilizations Review, 1985, № 13–14.

Hunter W. Report of the Indian Education Commission, 1881–1882. Calcutta, 1883.

Kent E. F. Converting women: gender and Protestant Christianity in colonial South India. New York, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1093/0195165071.001.0001

Lakshmi C. Tradition and Modernity of Tamil Women Writers // Social Scientist. Vol. 4, No. 9. 1976. https://doi.org/10.2307/3516176

Leonard J. Politics and social change in South India: A study of the Andhra movement // Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. Vol. 5, № 1. 1967.

Periyar. Minister Raja’s Speech. – https://archive.org/details/PeriyarBooks

Ram N. Dravidian Movement in Its Pre-Independence Phases // Economic and Political Weekly. Vol. 14, No. 7/8, Annual Number: Class and Caste in India. 1979.

Ramakrishna V. Women’s Journals in Andhra during the Nineteenth Century // Social Scientist. Vol. 19, No. 5/6. 1991. https://doi.org/10.2307/3517874

Ramalakshmi P. Reform Movement in Godavari District (1878–1939). An Attempt Towards Social Justice. Ramachandrapuram, 1995.

Raman S. Old norms in new bottles: Constructions of gender and ethnicity in the early Tamil novel // Journal of Women’s History. Vol. 12, № 3. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1353/jowh.2000.0063

Ramusack B. Cultural missionaries, maternal imperialists, feminist allies: British women activists in India, 1865–1945 // Women’s Studies International Forum. Vol. 13, № 4. 1990. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395(90)90028-V

Rani S. Women’s Worlds in the Novels of Kandukuri and Gilman // Comparative Literature and Culture. Vol. 14, № 2. 2012.

Reddy I. Social Reform Movements in Andhra (1920–1947). Dis. Hyderabad, 1998.

Scherer M. A cross-cultural conflict reexamined: Annette Akroyd and Keshub Chunder Sen // Journal of World History. Vol. 9, № 2. 1996. https://doi.org/10.1353/jwh.2005.0044

Shreenivas M. Emotion, Identity, and the Female Subject: Tamil Women’s Magazines in Colonial India, 1890–1940 // Journal of Women’s History. Vol. 14 № 4. 2003.

Sinha M. Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire. Durham, 2006.

Speeches and writings of Sarojini Naidu. Madras, 1925.

Tangri S. Intellectuals and Society in Nineteenth-Century India // Comparative Studies in Society and History. Vol. 3, № 04. 1961. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500001079

Venkatachalapathy A. In those days there was no coffee: Writings in cultural history // New Perspectives on Indian Pasts. New Delhi, 2006.

Whitehead J. Community Honor / Sexual Boundaries: A Discursive Analysis of Devadasi Criminalization in Madras, India, 1920–1947 // Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers, and Johns / Ed. by James E. Elias; Vern L. Bullough; Veronica Elias; Gwen Brewer. New York, 1998.

Writer R. Parsi Identity // Iran. Vol. 27. 1989.

REFERENCES

Anandhi S. (1992), Middle Class Women in Colonial Tamilnadu, 1920–1947: Gender Relation and the Problem of Consciousness, New Delhi.

Anjaneyulu D. (1976), Builders of Modern India: Kandukuri Veeresalingam, New Delhi.

Badran M. (1988), “Dual liberation: Feminism and nationalism in Egypt, 1870s–1925”, Gender Issues, T. 8. No. 1.

Besant A. (1905), Shri Rama Chandra: the Ideal King. Some Lessons from the Ramayana, Benares, London.

Chatterjee P. (1989), “Colonialism, Nationalism, and Colonialized Women: The Contest in India”, American ethnologist, Vol. 16, No. 4. https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1989.16.4.02a00020

Classical Telugu Poetry. An Anthology (2004), California.

Forbes. G. and Forbes G. H. (2008), Women in modern India, Cambridge.

Ganesan U. (2011), Gender and Caste: Self-Respect Movement in the Madras Presidency, 1925–1950, Dis. University of Cincinnati.

George G. (2002), “ ‘Four makes society’: Women’s organisation, Dravidian nationalism and women’s interpretation of caste, gender and change in South India”, Contribution to Indian sociology, Vol. 36, No. 3. https://doi.org/10.1177/006996670203600303

Hancock M. (2001), “Home science and the nationalization of domesticity in colonial India”, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X01004048

Hodges S. (2005), “Revolutionary family life and the Self Respect movement in Tamil south India, 1926–49”, Contributions to Indian sociology, T. 39, No. 2.

Hudson D. (1985), “The Responses of Tamils to Their Study by Westerners 1608–1908”, Comparative Civilizations Review, No. 13–14.

Hunter W. (1883), Report of the Indian Education Commission, 1881–1882, Calcutta.

Kent E. F. (2004), Converting women: gender and Protestant Christianity in colonial South India, New York. https://doi.org/10.1093/0195165071.001.0001

Lakshmi C. (1976), “Tradition and Modernity of Tamil Women Writers”, Social Scientist, Vol. 4, No. 9. https://doi.org/10.2307/3516176

Leonard J. (1967), “Politics and social change in South India: A study of the Andhra movement”, Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, Vol. 5, No. 1.

Periyar, Minister Raja’s Speech, available at: https://archive.org/details/PeriyarBooks

Ram N. (1979), “Dravidian Movement in Its Pre-Independence Phases”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 7/8, Annual Number: Class and Caste in India.

Ramakrishna V. (1991), “Women’s Journals in Andhra during the Nineteenth Century”, Social Scientist, Vol. 19, No. 5/6. https://doi.org/10.2307/3517874

Ramalakshmi P. (1995), Reform Movement in Godavari District (1878–1939). An Attempt Towards Social Justice, Ramachandrapuram.

Raman S. (2000), “Old norms in new bottles: Constructions of gender and ethnicity in the early Tamil novel”, Journal of Women’s History, Vol. 12, No. 3. https://doi.org/10.1353/jowh.2000.0063

Ramusack B. (1990), “Cultural missionaries, maternal imperialists, feminist allies: British women activists in India, 1865–1945”, Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 13, No. 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395(90)90028-V

Rani S. (2012), “Women’s Worlds in the Novels of Kandukuri and Gilman”, Comparative Literature and Culture, Vol. 14, No. 2.

Reddy I. (1998), Social Reform Movements in Andhra (1920–1947), Dis., Hyderabad.

Scherer M. (1996), “A cross-cultural conflict reexamined: Annette Akroyd and Keshub Chunder Sen”, Journal of World History, Vol. 9, No. 2. https://doi.org/10.1353/jwh.2005.0044

Shreenivas M. (2003), “Emotion, Identity, and the Female Subject: Tamil Women’s Magazines in Colonial India, 1890–1940”, Journal of Women’s History, Vol. 14, No. 4.

Sinha M. (2006), Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire, Durham.

Speeches and writings of Sarojini Naidu (1925), Madras.

Tangri S. (1961), “Intellectuals and Society in Nineteenth-Century India”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 3, No. 04. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500001079

Venkatachalapathy A. (2006), “In those days there was no coffee: Writings in cultural history”, in New Perspectives on Indian Pasts, New Delhi.

Whitehead J. (1998), “Community Honor / Sexual Boundaries: A Discursive Analysis of Devadasi Criminalization in Madras, India, 1920–1947”, in James E. Elias, Vern L. Bullough, Veronica Elias and Gwen Brewer (Eds.), Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers, and Johns, New York.

Writer R. (1989), “Parsi Identity”, Iran, Vol. 27.