ГРУПИ МЕНШИН У ПАЛЕСТИНІ У ПЕРІОД БРИТАНСЬКОГО МАНДАТУ

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  Ю. Хазран

Анотація

Палестинське суспільство протягом періоду мандату, як і інші суспільства цього регіону, було плюралістичним із релігійної точки зору. Цей плюралізм не був перешкодою для формування національного руху. У той же час участь християн та друзів у палестинській національній боротьбі послабилася, особливо з початку 1930-х. Ця тенденція збіглася з активізацією процесу ісламізації національної боротьби. Він посилився за роки повстання, поглиблюючи тенденції відчуження у цих двох групах. Низька участь християн та друзів в активній боротьбі була спричинена не їхніми релігійними розбіжностями, а головним чином невдачею палестинського національного руху у зведенні соціальних, політичних та релігійних мостів у палестинському суспільстві і перетворенні повстання 1936‒1939 рр. у формаційну подію для створення цілісного національного руху.
У статті досліджуються джерела та процеси, що призвели до сегрегації, ізоляції та відчуження серед цих груп у період Британського мандату. Наводяться аргументи, що низька участь була наслідком структурної слабкості, яка супроводжувала палестинський національний рух через фракційний підхід муфтія, внутрішні розколи та відсутність згуртованої національної програми. Це також було наслідком нездатності палестинського національного руху привести місцеві цінності до спільного національного знаменника.
Сектантство ніколи не було сутністю чи коренем кризи, яка супроводжувала палестинський національний рух під Британським мандатом. Регрес, що перешкоджав діяльності християн, і, більш очевидно, друзів, був ознакою кризи палестинського національного руху. Ця криза виникла як очікуваний результат невдачі політичної еліти і була не що інше, як результат їхньої неспроможності створити цілісну національну спільноту в Палестині.

Як цитувати

Хазран, Ю. (2019). ГРУПИ МЕНШИН У ПАЛЕСТИНІ У ПЕРІОД БРИТАНСЬКОГО МАНДАТУ. Східний світ, (3 (104), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.15407/orientw2019.03.015
Переглядів статті: 63 | Завантажень PDF: 36

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Ключові слова

Британський мандат, друзи, Палестина, палестинський національний рух, християни

Посилання

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Abu-Laban Kh. (1931), “Kayfa Khuliqat al-Na’ara al-Ta’ifiyya fi al-Bilad”, in Al-Jami‘a al-Islamiyya (Jaffa), October 31. (In Arabic).

al-Ghuri E. (1972), Filastin ‘abr Sittin ‘Am [Palestine During Sixty Years], Dar al-Nahar, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Haj M. (1988), “The Changing Arab Kinship Structure: The Effect of Modernization in an Urban Community”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, Issue 2, pp. 237–258. https://doi.org/10.1086/451650

al-Hajj R. I. (2005), Al-Difa‘ ‘an Hayfa wa Qadiyyat Filastin, Mu’assasat al-Dirasat al-Filas­tiniyya, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Hut B. N. (1981), Al-Qiyadat wa al-Mu’assasat al-Siyasiyya fi Filastin [Political Leader­ships and Institutions in Palestine], Mu’assasat al-Dirasat al-Filastinya, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Qadamani A. A. (2010), “Lamha ‘an al-‘Arab al-Duruz qabl wa ba‘d Qiyam Dawlat Isra’il [A Profile of the Arab-Druze before and after the Establishment of the State of Israel]”, in al-Itti­had, (Haifa), June 18. (In Arabic).

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al-Sakakini Kh. (2005), Yawmiyyat Khalil al-Sakakini [Diaries of Khalil al-Sakakini], Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center, Ramallah. (In Arabic).

Ben-Zvi I. (1953), “Druze Settlement in Israel”, Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies, pp. 203–209. (In Hebrew).

Campus M. (2011), Ottoman Brothers, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Cohen H. (2008), Army of Shadows, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Falah A. N. (1996), Duruz Filastin fi Thawrat ‘Am 1936 [The Druze of Palestine During the 1936 Revolt], n. p. (In Arabic).

Farag R. (1990), “Mawqif al-Shaykh Amin Tarif [The Attitude of Shaykh Amin Tarif]”, in al-Kalimah (Daliat El-Karmel), August 20, pp. 8–9. (In Arabic).

Farag R. (2002), The Relationship Between the Druze and Jews, Yanouh. (In Hebrew).

Farah F. (2003), Al-Hijara al-Hayya [The Living Stones], Nazareth. (In Arabic).

Firro K. M. (1992), A History of the Druze, Brill, Leiden.

Firro K. (1999), The Druzes in the Jewish State, Brill, Leiden.

Firro K. (2000), “Reshaping Druze Particularism in Israel”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 40–53. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2001.30.3.40

Firro K. (2005), “Druze Maqamat (Shrines) in Israel: from Ancient to Newly-Invented Tradi­tion”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 217–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530190500281457

Gribetz J. (2014), Defining Neighbors, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Haiduc-Dale N. (2013), Arab Christians in British Mandate Palestine, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748676033.001.0001

Kabha M. (2004), Journalism in the Eye of the Storm, Yad Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem. (In Hebrew).

Kabha M. (2008), The Palestinians: A People Dispersed, The Open University of Israel, Raa­nana. (In Hebrew).

Kaufman I. (1997), Arab National Communism in the Jewish State, University Press of Flori­da, Gainesville, FL.

Kaufman I. (2014), “Communists and the 1948 War: PCP, Maki and the National Liberation League”, Journal of Israeli History, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp. 115–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/13531042.2014.946278

Khalidi R. (2007), The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood, One­world Publications, London, UK.

Khnifess A. (2015), Israel and the Druze Political Action, PhD diss., SOAS, University of London.

Mack M. (2015), “Orthodox and Communist: A History of a Christian Community in Mandate Palestine and Israel”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 42, Issue 4, pp. 384–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2014.1002386

Naffa S. (2010), Al-‘Arab al-Duruz wa al-Haraka al-Wataniyya al-Filastiniyya Hatta 1948 [The Arab-Druze and the Palestinian National Movement up to 1948], Fourth Edition, Matba‘at al-Risala al-Maqdisiyya, al-Quds. (In Arabic).

Natur S. and Hasson A. (2001), The Druze, Daliat El Carmel.

Parsons L. (2000), The Druze between Palestine and Israel, 1947–1949, MacMillan Press Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK. n Palestine and Israel, 1947-1949, MacMillan Press Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK.

https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230595989

Peretz D. (1977), “Palestinian Social Stratification: The Political Implications”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 48–74. https://doi.org/10.2307/2536528

Porat Ye. (1968), “Usbat al-Taharrur al-Watani [National Liberation League] 1943–1948”, Asian and African Studies, Vol. 4, pp. 1–5. (In Arabic).

Porat Ye. (1974), The Emergence of the Palestinian Arab National Movement, 1918–1929, Frank Cass, London.

Radai I. (2007), “The Collapse of the Palestinian Arab Middle Class of 1948: The Case of Qatamon”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 961–982. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200701568352

Radai I. (2015), A Tale of Two Cities, Tel Aviv University Press, Tel Aviv. (In Hebrew).

Radai I. (2016), “The Rise and the Fall of the Palestinian-Arab Middle Class under the British Mandate”, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 51, Issue 3, pp. 487–506. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009415609682

Robson L. (2012), Colonialism and Christianity in Mandate Palestine, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

Sabella B. (1998), “The Emigration of Christian Arabs: Dimensions and Causes of the Phe­nomenon”, in Andre Pacini (Ed.), Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 127–154.

Sabella B. (2007), Palestinian Christians: Historical Demographic Developments, Current Politics and Attitude Towards Church, Society and Human Rights. Sabeel Survey on Palestinian Christians in the West Bank and Israel, February 12, available at: https://www.fosna.org/files/fosna/events/SabeelSurveyPalestinianChristia.

Shimon A. (2007), Copper Plate: Israeli Policy towards the Druze 1948–1967, Yad Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem. (In Hebrew).

Shurab M. M. H. (2000), ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam: Shaykh al-Mujahidin in Filastin, Dar al-Qalam, Damascus. (In Arabic).

The Central Zionist Archives, S 25/6638, A. H. C. “On the Fate of Our Relationship with the Druze Nation”, 2 November 1937.

The Central Zionist Archives, S 25/9165; 4 October 1936.

The Central Zionist Archive, S 90/2053/2, “End of the Polemic between Isa al-Isa and al-Faruqi”, 16 March 1933.

Tsimhoni D. (1984), “The Status of Arab Christians under the British Mandate in Palestine”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 166–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263208408700605

Vashitz Yo. (1947), Arabs in Eretz Yisrael, Merhavia, Tel Aviv. (In Hebrew).

Wasserstein Bernard (1991), The British in Palestine: The Mandatory Government and the Arab-Jewish Conflict 1917–1929, 2nd edition, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Zaidan R. (2015), The Arab Battalion: The History of the Minorities’ Unit in the IDF, 1948–1956, Maarachot, Ben-Shemen.

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Abu Hanna H. (2005), Tala’i‘ al-Nahda fi Filastin, Mu’assasat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya, Bei­rut. (In Arabic).

Abu-Laban Kh. (1931), “Kayfa Khuliqat al-Na’ara al-Ta’ifiyya fi al-Bilad”, in Al-Jami‘a al-Islamiyya (Jaffa), October 31. (In Arabic).

al-Ghuri E. (1972), Filastin ‘abr Sittin ‘Am [Palestine During Sixty Years], Dar al-Nahar, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Haj M. (1988), “The Changing Arab Kinship Structure: The Effect of Modernization in an Urban Community”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, Issue 2, pp. 237–258. https://doi.org/10.1086/451650

al-Hajj R. I. (2005), Al-Difa‘ ‘an Hayfa wa Qadiyyat Filastin, Mu’assasat al-Dirasat al-Filas­tiniyya, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Hut B. N. (1981), Al-Qiyadat wa al-Mu’assasat al-Siyasiyya fi Filastin [Political Leader­ships and Institutions in Palestine], Mu’assasat al-Dirasat al-Filastinya, Beirut. (In Arabic).

al-Qadamani A. A. (2010), “Lamha ‘an al-‘Arab al-Duruz qabl wa ba‘d Qiyam Dawlat Isra’il [A Profile of the Arab-Druze before and after the Establishment of the State of Israel]”, in al-Itti­had, (Haifa), June 18. (In Arabic).

al-Qadir A. Ya., “Al-Sahafa al-‘Arabiyya fi Filastin [Arab Journalism in Palestine]”, II, Hayaat al-Mawsu‘a al-Filastiniyya, Damascus, pp. 430–432. (In Arabic).

al-Sakakini Kh. (2005), Yawmiyyat Khalil al-Sakakini [Diaries of Khalil al-Sakakini], Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center, Ramallah. (In Arabic).

Ben-Zvi I. (1953), “Druze Settlement in Israel”, Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies, pp. 203–209. (In Hebrew).

Campus M. (2011), Ottoman Brothers, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Cohen H. (2008), Army of Shadows, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Falah A. N. (1996), Duruz Filastin fi Thawrat ‘Am 1936 [The Druze of Palestine During the 1936 Revolt], n. p. (In Arabic).

Farag R. (1990), “Mawqif al-Shaykh Amin Tarif [The Attitude of Shaykh Amin Tarif]”, in al-Kalimah (Daliat El-Karmel), August 20, pp. 8–9. (In Arabic).

Farag R. (2002), The Relationship Between the Druze and Jews, Yanouh. (In Hebrew).

Farah F. (2003), Al-Hijara al-Hayya [The Living Stones], Nazareth. (In Arabic).

Firro K. M. (1992), A History of the Druze, Brill, Leiden.

Firro K. (1999), The Druzes in the Jewish State, Brill, Leiden.

Firro K. (2000), “Reshaping Druze Particularism in Israel”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 40–53. https://doi.org/10.1525/jps.2001.30.3.40

Firro K. (2005), “Druze Maqamat (Shrines) in Israel: from Ancient to Newly-Invented Tradi­tion”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 217–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530190500281457

Gribetz J. (2014), Defining Neighbors, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Haiduc-Dale N. (2013), Arab Christians in British Mandate Palestine, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748676033.001.0001

Kabha M. (2004), Journalism in the Eye of the Storm, Yad Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem. (In Hebrew).

Kabha M. (2008), The Palestinians: A People Dispersed, The Open University of Israel, Raa­nana. (In Hebrew).

Kaufman I. (1997), Arab National Communism in the Jewish State, University Press of Flori­da, Gainesville, FL.

Kaufman I. (2014), “Communists and the 1948 War: PCP, Maki and the National Liberation League”, Journal of Israeli History, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp. 115–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/13531042.2014.946278

Khalidi R. (2007), The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood, One­world Publications, London, UK.

Khnifess A. (2015), Israel and the Druze Political Action, PhD diss., SOAS, University of London.

Mack M. (2015), “Orthodox and Communist: A History of a Christian Community in Mandate Palestine and Israel”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 42, Issue 4, pp. 384–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2014.1002386

Naffa S. (2010), Al-‘Arab al-Duruz wa al-Haraka al-Wataniyya al-Filastiniyya Hatta 1948 [The Arab-Druze and the Palestinian National Movement up to 1948], Fourth Edition, Matba‘at al-Risala al-Maqdisiyya, al-Quds. (In Arabic).

Natur S. and Hasson A. (2001), The Druze, Daliat El Carmel.

Parsons L. (2000), The Druze between Palestine and Israel, 1947–1949, MacMillan Press Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230595989

Peretz D. (1977), “Palestinian Social Stratification: The Political Implications”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 48–74. https://doi.org/10.2307/2536528

Porat Ye. (1968), “Usbat al-Taharrur al-Watani [National Liberation League] 1943–1948”, Asian and African Studies, Vol. 4, pp. 1–5. (In Arabic).

Porat Ye. (1974), The Emergence of the Palestinian Arab National Movement, 1918–1929, Frank Cass, London.

Radai I. (2007), “The Collapse of the Palestinian Arab Middle Class of 1948: The Case of Qatamon”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 961–982. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200701568352

Radai I. (2015), A Tale of Two Cities, Tel Aviv University Press, Tel Aviv. (In Hebrew).

Radai I. (2016), “The Rise and the Fall of the Palestinian-Arab Middle Class under the British Mandate”, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 51, Issue 3, pp. 487–506. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009415609682

Robson L. (2012), Colonialism and Christianity in Mandate Palestine, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

Sabella B. (1998), “The Emigration of Christian Arabs: Dimensions and Causes of the Phe­nomenon”, in Andre Pacini (Ed.), Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 127–154.

Sabella B. (2007), Palestinian Christians: Historical Demographic Developments, Current Politics and Attitude Towards Church, Society and Human Rights. Sabeel Survey on Palestinian Christians in the West Bank and Israel, February 12, available at: https://www.fosna.org/files/fosna/events/SabeelSurveyPalestinianChristia.

Shimon A. (2007), Copper Plate: Israeli Policy towards the Druze 1948–1967, Yad Ben-Zvi, Jerusalem. (In Hebrew).

Shurab M. M. H. (2000), ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam: Shaykh al-Mujahidin in Filastin, Dar al-Qalam, Damascus. (In Arabic).

The Central Zionist Archives, S 25/6638, A. H. C. “On the Fate of Our Relationship with the Druze Nation”, 2 November 1937.

The Central Zionist Archives, S 25/9165; 4 October 1936.

The Central Zionist Archive, S 90/2053/2, “End of the Polemic between Isa al-Isa and al-Faruqi”, 16 March 1933.

Tsimhoni D. (1984), “The Status of Arab Christians under the British Mandate in Palestine”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 166–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263208408700605

Vashitz Yo. (1947), Arabs in Eretz Yisrael, Merhavia, Tel Aviv. (In Hebrew).

Wasserstein Bernard (1991), The British in Palestine: The Mandatory Government and the Arab-Jewish Conflict 1917–1929, 2nd edition, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Zaidan R. (2015), The Arab Battalion: The History of the Minorities’ Unit in the IDF, 1948–1956, Maarachot, Ben-Shemen.