КИТАЙСЬКО-ІНДІЙСЬКЕ СУПЕРНИЦТВО В АФРИЦІ

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  О. А. Борділовська

  В. Угву

Анотація

Розвиток африканських держав і в цілому майбутнє Африканського континенту в експертному середовищі вже давно обговорюються в контексті зовнішньої допомоги, ефективного використання іноземних інвестицій та різноманітних двосторонніх проектів. Протягом останнього десятиріччя йдеться не стільки про допомогу Заходу, скільки про активізацію двох провідних азійських акторів – Індії і Китаю, без яких африканських розвиток вже неможливо уявити. Якщо роль КНР в африканських справах досить скоро стає очевидною, то Індія, хоч і має давні партнерські відносини з країнами континенту, видається поки що набагато скромнішою. З другого боку, вона пропонує власну, відмінну від китайської стратегію, тож автори статті намагаються дослідити можливий результат індійсько-китайської конкуренції в Африці.

Як цитувати

Борділовська, О. А., & Угву, В. (2018). КИТАЙСЬКО-ІНДІЙСЬКЕ СУПЕРНИЦТВО В АФРИЦІ. Східний світ, (1), 5-17. https://doi.org/10.15407/orientw2018.01.005
Переглядів статті: 27 | Завантажень PDF: 12

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Ключові слова

індійсько-китайське суперництво, Африка, китайські інвестиції, ресурси індійські технологічні проекти, розвиток

Посилання

Beri R. (2008), “India-Africa Relations. Changing Patterns”, in India. Perspectives, pp. 82–87.

Bräutigam Deborah (2009), The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa, Oxford University Press, New York.

“China Announces $20 Billion in Africa Loan” (2012), Voice of America, available at: https://www.voanews.com/a/china-pledges-20-billion-in-loans-for-africa/1. (accessed August 6, 2017).

“China Pledges $60 Billion to Aid Africa’s Development” (2015), New York Times, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/05/world/africa/china-pledges-60-billion. (accessed August 6, 2017).

Chirambo Dumisani (2016), “Review. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa’s climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals”, Advances in Climate Change Research, 7, pp. 253–263, available at: https://www.cbd.int/financial/2017docs/china-africa-climate.pdf (accessed December 11, 2017).

“Deadly Mali hotel attack: ‘They were shooting at anything that moved’ ” (2015), CNN, available at: https://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/20/africa/mali-shooting/index.html (accessed August 6, 2017).

Eisenman Joshua (2012), “China – Africa Trade Patterns: causes and consequences”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 77, pp. 793–810. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2012.684964

“Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang’s Regular Press Conference on October 30, 2015” (2015), in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China, available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1310709.shtml (accessed August 7, 2017).

Foster Vivien et al. (2009), “Building Bridges. China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Sub-Saharan Africa”, in World Bank Trends and Policy Options, No. 5, available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/2614 (accessed August 6, 2017).

Gieg Philipp (2016), “The Partnership of the Century? China’s Africa Policy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the 21st Century”, in Julien Bobineau, Philipp Gieg (eds.), The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Problems, Progress and Prospects, LIT, Berlin and Münster, pp. 257–280.

Gumede William (2017), “The China-Africa relationship is increasingly criticized across the continent”, in ID4D, available at: http://ideas4development.org/en/china-africa-relationship/ (accessed December 11, 2017).

Harsh Bhasin (2007), “India and South Africa: ties that bind”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 819–836.

“Hillary Clinton launches. African tour with veiled attack on China” (2012), The Guardian, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/aug/01/hillary-clinton-africa-china (accessed August 7, 2017).

India-Africa Forum Summit-III (2015), available at: http://mea.gov.in/india-africa-forumsummit-2015/index.html# (accessed February 7, 2017).

“India close behind China as new African trading partner” (2015), in ODI. Shaping policy for development, available at: https://www.odi.org/comment/10048-india-china-trade-investment-africa (accessed January 28, 2017).

India. Perspectives (2016), Vol. 30, No. 5.

Iwata Takuo (2012), “Comparative Study on ‘Asian’ Approaches to Africa: An Introductory Reflection”, African Study Monographs, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 209–231.

Kambudzi A. M. (2013), “Africa and China’s Non-Interference Policy: Towards Peace Enhancement” in Mulugeta Gebrehiwot Berhe and Liu Hongwu (eds.), China-Africa Relations Governance, Peace and Security, Institute for Peace and Security Studies (Addis Ababa University) and Institute of African Studies (Zhejiang Normal University), available at: https://ru.scribd.com/document/363552809/China-Africa-book-3-pdf (accessed December 11, 2017).

Kaplinsky Raphael and Mike Morris (2009), “Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: engaging with large dragons”, European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 551–569.

Khare Vineet (2013), “China and India: The scramble for business in Africa”, BBC, available at: www.bbc.com/news/business-23225998 (accessed August 7, 2017).

Large Daniel (2008), “From Non-Interference to Constructive Engagement? China’s Evolving Relations with Sudan”, in Chris Alden, Daniel Large and Ricardo Soares de Oliveira (eds.), China Returns to Africa. A Rising Power and a Continent Embrace, Hurst, London, pp. 295–317.

Mawdsley, Emma (2007), “China and Africa: Emerging Challenges to the Geographies of Power”, Geography Compass, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 405–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2007.00019.x

Mbeki Mvuyelwa (2004), “Mbeki is a South African politician who served as the second post-apa. ‘China and SA must lessen dependence on the West’ ”, Sunday Times, Johannesburg.

Nissanke Machiko and Marie Söderberg (2011), “The Changing Landscape in Aid Relationships in Africa: Can China’s engagement make a difference to African development?”, UI papers, Utrikespolitiska institutet.

“No Sino-India Rivalry Over Influence in Africa: China” (2015), in NDTV, available at: www.ndtv.com/india-news/no-sino-india-rivalry-over-influence-in-africa-c... (accessed August 7, 2017).

Ramani Samuel (2016), “Zimbabwe: China’s ‘All-Weather’ Friend in Africa”, The Diplomat, available at: https://thediplomat.com/2016/01/zimbabwe-chinas-all-weather-friend-in-af. (accessed August 7, 2017).

Ravi Shankar K. (2013), India’s Foreign Policy, Black Prints, New Delhi.

Reilly James (2013), China’s Economic Statecraft: Turning Wealth into Power, The Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney.

Renard, Thomas (2009), “A BRIC in the World: Emerging Powers, Europe and the Coming Order”, in Egmont Papers, No. 31, available at: www.egmontinstitute.be/a-bric-in-the-world-emerging-powers-europe-and-th... (accessed August 7, 2017).

Singh S. (2007), “India and Africa: a Response to African Institualization in the 21st century”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 477–506.

Snow Philip (1989), The Star Raft: China’s encounter with Africa, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Suri N. (2007), “India and Africa: a Contemporary Perspective”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 507–528.

Taylor Ian (1998), “China’s foreign policy towards Africa in the 1990s”, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 443–460. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X98002857

The World Bank (2013), “Financing for Development post 2015”, available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/206701468158366611/Financing-f. (accessed August 7, 2017).

Thompson Drew (2005), “China’s soft power in Africa: from the ‘Beijing Consensus’ to health diplomacy”, China Brief, Vol. 5, Issue 21, pp. 1–4.

REFERENCES

Beri R. (2008), “India-Africa Relations. Changing Patterns”, in India. Perspectives, pp. 82–87.

Bräutigam Deborah (2009), The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa, Oxford University Press, New York.

“China Announces $20 Billion in Africa Loan” (2012), Voice of America, available at: https://www.voanews.com/a/china-pledges-20-billion-in-loans-for-africa/1. (accessed August 6, 2017).

“China Pledges $60 Billion to Aid Africa’s Development” (2015), New York Times, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/05/world/africa/china-pledges-60-billion. (accessed August 6, 2017).

Chirambo Dumisani (2016), “Review. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa’s climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals”, Advances in Climate Change Research, 7, pp. 253–263, available at: https://www.cbd.int/financial/2017docs/china-africa-climate.pdf (accessed December 11, 2017).

“Deadly Mali hotel attack: ‘They were shooting at anything that moved’ ” (2015), CNN, available at: https://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/20/africa/mali-shooting/index.html (accessed August 6, 2017).

Eisenman Joshua (2012), “China – Africa Trade Patterns: causes and consequences”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 21, No. 77, pp. 793–810. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2012.684964

“Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang’s Regular Press Conference on October 30, 2015” (2015), in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People’s Republic of China, available at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1310709.shtml (accessed August 7, 2017).

Foster Vivien et al. (2009), “Building Bridges. China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Sub-Saharan Africa”, in World Bank Trends and Policy Options, No. 5, available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/2614 (accessed August 6, 2017).

Gieg Philipp (2016), “The Partnership of the Century? China’s Africa Policy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the 21st Century”, in Julien Bobineau, Philipp Gieg (eds.), The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Problems, Progress and Prospects, LIT, Berlin and Münster, pp. 257–280.

Gumede William (2017), “The China-Africa relationship is increasingly criticized across the continent”, in ID4D, available at: http://ideas4development.org/en/china-africa-relationship/ (accessed December 11, 2017).

Harsh Bhasin (2007), “India and South Africa: ties that bind”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 819–836.

“Hillary Clinton launches. African tour with veiled attack on China” (2012), The Guardian, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/aug/01/hillary-clinton-africa-china (accessed August 7, 2017).

India-Africa Forum Summit-III (2015), available at: http://mea.gov.in/india-africa-forumsummit-2015/index.html# (accessed February 7, 2017).

“India close behind China as new African trading partner” (2015), in ODI. Shaping policy for development, available at: https://www.odi.org/comment/10048-india-china-trade-investment-africa (accessed January 28, 2017).

India. Perspectives (2016), Vol. 30, No. 5.

Iwata Takuo (2012), “Comparative Study on ‘Asian’ Approaches to Africa: An Introductory Reflection”, African Study Monographs, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 209–231.

Kambudzi A. M. (2013), “Africa and China’s Non-Interference Policy: Towards Peace Enhancement” in Mulugeta Gebrehiwot Berhe and Liu Hongwu (eds.), China-Africa Relations Governance, Peace and Security, Institute for Peace and Security Studies (Addis Ababa University) and Institute of African Studies (Zhejiang Normal University), available at: https://ru.scribd.com/document/363552809/China-Africa-book-3-pdf (accessed December 11, 2017).

Kaplinsky Raphael and Mike Morris (2009), “Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: engaging with large dragons”, European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 551–569.

Khare Vineet (2013), “China and India: The scramble for business in Africa”, BBC, available at: www.bbc.com/news/business-23225998 (accessed August 7, 2017).

Large Daniel (2008), “From Non-Interference to Constructive Engagement? China’s Evolving Relations with Sudan”, in Chris Alden, Daniel Large and Ricardo Soares de Oliveira (eds.), China Returns to Africa. A Rising Power and a Continent Embrace, Hurst, London, pp. 295–317.

Mawdsley, Emma (2007), “China and Africa: Emerging Challenges to the Geographies of Power”, Geography Compass, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 405–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2007.00019.x

Mbeki Mvuyelwa (2004), “Mbeki is a South African politician who served as the second post-apa. ‘China and SA must lessen dependence on the West’ ”, Sunday Times, Johannesburg.

Nissanke Machiko and Marie Söderberg (2011), “The Changing Landscape in Aid Relationships in Africa: Can China’s engagement make a difference to African development?”, UI papers, Utrikespolitiska institutet.

“No Sino-India Rivalry Over Influence in Africa: China” (2015), in NDTV, available at: www.ndtv.com/india-news/no-sino-india-rivalry-over-influence-in-africa-c... (accessed August 7, 2017).

Ramani Samuel (2016), “Zimbabwe: China’s ‘All-Weather’ Friend in Africa”, The Diplomat, available at: https://thediplomat.com/2016/01/zimbabwe-chinas-all-weather-friend-in-af. (accessed August 7, 2017).

Ravi Shankar K. (2013), India’s Foreign Policy, Black Prints, New Delhi.

Reilly James (2013), China’s Economic Statecraft: Turning Wealth into Power, The Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney.

Renard, Thomas (2009), “A BRIC in the World: Emerging Powers, Europe and the Coming Order”, in Egmont Papers, No. 31, available at: www.egmontinstitute.be/a-bric-in-the-world-emerging-powers-europe-and-th... (accessed August 7, 2017).

Singh S. (2007), “India and Africa: a Response to African Institualization in the 21st century”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 477–506.

Snow Philip (1989), The Star Raft: China’s encounter with Africa, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Suri N. (2007), “India and Africa: a Contemporary Perspective”, in Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, pp. 507–528.

Taylor Ian (1998), “China’s foreign policy towards Africa in the 1990s”, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 443–460. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X98002857

The World Bank (2013), “Financing for Development post 2015”, available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/206701468158366611/Financing-f. (accessed August 7, 2017).

Thompson Drew (2005), “China’s soft power in Africa: from the ‘Beijing Consensus’ to health diplomacy”, China Brief, Vol. 5, Issue 21, pp. 1–4.

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