“REGES IUDAICI”: ПРАВИТЕЛІ-ЮДЕЇ ТА КОНСТРУЮВАННЯ ОБРАЗІВ РИМО-ПАРФЯНСЬКОГО ПРИКОРДОННЯ У ТВОРАХ ЙОСИФА ФЛАВІЯ

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  В. Л. Гуменний

Анотація

Стаття присвячена аналізу образів римо-парфянського прикордоння, які створив у своїх творах автор І століття нової ери Йосиф Флавій. Ключову роль у конструюванні наративу для нього відігравали постаті, пов’язані з історією західних сатрапій царства Аршакідів, та правителі невеликих царств у районі верхньої течії Тигру та Євфрату. Історія юдейських общин, які перебували поза теренами Римської імперії, або державних утворень, правителі яких приймали юдаїзм, зацікавила Йосифа, і він характеризував їхню діяльність та оцінював усі їхні успіхи та невдачі, виходячи зі специфіки їхнього віросповідання та дотримання релігійних ритуалів і благочестя, яких мав дотримуватись кожен юдей. Саме в такому аспекті Йосиф описує діяльність двох братів-євреїв з Нехардеї – Асінея та Анілея та історію переходу в юдаїзм представників панівного дому Адіабени (Єлени та Ізата ІІ).

На думку автора статті, описані Йосифом приклади діяльності євреїв та правителів, які перейшли в юдаїзм, виконували свою специфічну функцію в конструюванні наративу творів Йосифа Флавія, і трансформація форм і засобів як римської, так і парфянської політики у прикордонних регіонах упродовж І–ІІ ст. н. е. здебільшого була досить ситуативною. Успіх Асінея та Анілея, у трактуванні Йосифа Флавія пов’язаний з їхнім єврейським походженням, був радше віддзеркаленням кризових явищ, які охопили внутрішньополітичне життя Парфії в добу Артабана ІІІ, і так само їхнє падіння також може бути пов’язане з боротьбою Артабана ІІІ зі своїми суперниками. У випадку Адіабени перехід представників панівного двору в юдаїзм був спонтанним, але Йосифом він подається як акт провидіння та воля Господа, які спрямовували Єлену, Ізата ІІ та їхніх нащадків у їхній діяльності. Тому сконструйовані Йосифом образи успішної діяльності таких правителів-юдеїв на практиці були можливими лише завдяки політичній взаємодії Аршакідів із залежними від них територіями та царствами, і вони змінюються уже в ІІ ст. н. е., після безпосереднього воєнного втручання римлян у ситуацію в регіоні.

Як цитувати

Гуменний, В. Л. (2021). “REGES IUDAICI”: ПРАВИТЕЛІ-ЮДЕЇ ТА КОНСТРУЮВАННЯ ОБРАЗІВ РИМО-ПАРФЯНСЬКОГО ПРИКОРДОННЯ У ТВОРАХ ЙОСИФА ФЛАВІЯ. Східний світ, (3 (112), 15-26. https://doi.org/10.15407/orientw2021.03.015
Переглядів статті: 121 | Завантажень PDF: 68

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Ключові слова

Адіабена, Йосиф Флавій, Парфія, Римська імперія, юдаїзм у давнину

Посилання

Alon G. (1984), The Jews in their Land in the Talmudic Age (70–640 CE), The Magnes Press, Jerusalem.

Angeli Bertinelli M.G. (1976), “I Romani oltre l’Eufrate nel II secolo d. C. (le province di Assiria, di Meopotamia e di Osroene)”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Principat. Politische Geschichte, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin & New York, Bd. II. 9.1, pp. 3–45. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110887488-002

Assar G. (2017), “An Audience with King Artabanus IV of Parthia: The Numismatic Legacy of the AD 22 Jewish Revolt”, in Iranian Numismatic Studies. A Volume in Honor of Stephen Album, Classical Numismatic Group, pp. 1–32.

Baltrusch E. (2002), Die Juden und das Römische Reich: Geschichte einer konfliktreichen Beziehung Gebundene, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.

Coskun A. (2012), Amici Populi Romani. Prosopographie der auswärtigen Freunde Roms, Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies.

Dąbrowa E. (2014), “The Parthian Aristocracy: its Social Position and Political Activity”, Parthica, No. 15, pp. 53–62.

Dio Cassius (1924), Roman History, Vol. VII, Books 56–60, Loeb Classical Library 175, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Dio Cassius (1925), Roman History, Vol. VIII, Books 61–70, Loeb Classical Library 176, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dio Cassius (1927), Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71–80, Loeb Classical Library 177, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Goodblatt D. (1987), “Josephus on Parthian Babylonia (Antiquities XVIII, 310–379)”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 605–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/603303

Gregoratti L. (2011), “A Parthian Harbour in the Gulf: the Characene”, Anabasis, Studia Classica et Orientalia, No. 2, pp. 209–229.

Gregoratti L. (2012), “Parthian Women in Flavius Josephus”, in M. Hirschberger (ed.), Jüdisch-hellenistische Literatur in ihrem interkulturellen Kontext, Peter Lang, New York, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 183–192.

Gregoratti L. (2017), “Sinews of the other Empire: Parthian King’s Rule over Vassal Kingdoms”, in Sinews of the Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxford, pp. 95–104.

Hinterhöller M. (2008), Der Triumphbogen des Septimius Severus und die historischen Reliefs der Partherkriege: Ein Triumphalmonument am Beginn der späten Kaiserzeit, Wissenschaftliche Studie.

Historia Augusta (1921), Vol. I: Hadrian. Aelius. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. L. Verus. Avidius Cassius. Commodus. Pertinax. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus, Loeb Classical Library 139, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1927), The Jewish War, Vol. II, Books 3–4, Loeb Classical Library 487, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1928), The Jewish War, Vol. III, Books 5–7, Loeb Classical Library 210, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1965a), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. VIII, Books 18–19, Loeb Classical Library 433, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1965b), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. IX, Book 20, Loeb Classical Library 456, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kaizer T. (2010), Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East, Franz Steiner Verlag.

Liebowitz E. (2018), “A New Perspective on Two Jewish Queens in the Second Temple Period: Alexandra of Judaea and Helene of Adiabene”, in Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism, Brill, pp. 41–65. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004366985_005

Luttwack E. (1979), The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Magie D. (1950), Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century After Christ, Princeton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400887743

Marciak M. (2012), Izates and Helena of Adiabene: a study on literary traditions and history, Leiden.

Marciak M. (2017), Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene. Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West, Brill, Leiden and Boston. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004350724

Marciak M. (2018), “Royal Converts from Adiabene and the Archaeology of Jerusalem”, Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, No. 21, pp. 29–58.

McClister D. (2008), Ethnicity and Jewish Identity in Josephus, PhD thesis, University of Florida.

Millar F. (1993), The Roman Near East: 31 BC–AD 337, Harvard University Press, London and Cambridge, Mass.

Montgomery J. A. (1921), “The Religion of Flavius Josephus”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 277–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1451151

Neusner J. (1964), “The Conversion of Adiabene to Judaism: A New Perspective”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 60–66. https://doi.org/10.2307/3264908

Neusner J. (1965), A History of the Jews in Babylonia. I. The Parthian Period, Leiden.

Neusner J. (2009), “Judeo-Persian communities iii. Parthian and Sasanian periods”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XV/1, pp. 96–103.

Olbrycht M. J. (2013), Imperium Parthicum. Kryzys i odbudowa państwa Arsakidów w pierwszej połowie pierwszego wieku po Chrystusie, Historia Iagellonica.

Palermo R. (2019), On the Edge of Empires. North Mesopotamia During the Roman Period (2nd – 4th c. CE), Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315648255

Pennachietti F. A. (1987), “L’Iscrizione bilingue greco-parthica dell’ Eracle di Seleucia”, Mesopotamia, No. 22, pp. 169–185.

Rajak T. (1998), “The Parthians in Josephus”, in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 309–324.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1924), Velleius Paterculus. Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Loeb Classical Library 152, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Sartre M. (1991), L’Orient romain. Provinces et sociétés provinciales en Méditerranée orientale d’Auguste aux Sévères (31 av. J.-C. – 235 ap. J.-C), Le Seuil.

Schlude J. (2017), Arsacids, Romans and Local Elites: Cross-Cultural Interactions of the Parthian Empire, Oxbow Books.

Schuol M. (2000), Die Charakene: ein mesopotamisches Königreich in hellenistisch-parthischer Zeit, Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Seland E. H. (2017), Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxbow Books.

Sellwood D. (1983), “Adiabene”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I/5, pp. 456–459.

Smith M. (1987), “Asinaeus and Anileus”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 7, p. 765.

Suetonius (1917), Lives of the Caesars, Vol. I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula, Loeb Classical Library 31, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937a), Annals: Books 4–6, 11–12, Loeb Classical Library 312, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937b), Annals: Books 13–16, Loeb Classical Library 322, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thomas M. (2020), “The Conversions of Adiabene and Edessa in Syriac Christianity and Judaism: The Relations of Jews and Christians in Northern Mesopotamia in Antiquity”, Concordia Theological Journal, Vol. 7:1, pp. 10–33.

van Wijlick H. (2013), Rome and Near Eastern Kingdoms and Principalities, 44–31 BC: A Study of Political Relations During Civil War, Durham University.

Wolski J. (1966), “Les Achéménides et les Arsacides”, Syria, Vol. 43, pp. 65–89. https://doi.org/10.3406/syria.1966.5906

Wolski J. (1989), “Sur l’impéralisme des Parthes Arsacides”, in L. De Meyer, E. Haerinck (éds), Archaeologia iranica et orientalis. Miscellanea in honorem Louis Vanden Berghe, Vol. II, Gand, pp. 637–650.

Alon G. (1984), The Jews in their Land in the Talmudic Age (70–640 CE), The Magnes Press, Jerusalem.

Angeli Bertinelli M.G. (1976), “I Romani oltre l’Eufrate nel II secolo d. C. (le province di Assiria, di Meopotamia e di Osroene)”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Principat. Politische Geschichte, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin & New York, Bd. II. 9.1, pp. 3–45. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110887488-002

Assar G. (2017), “An Audience with King Artabanus IV of Parthia: The Numismatic Legacy of the AD 22 Jewish Revolt”, in Iranian Numismatic Studies. A Volume in Honor of Stephen Album, Classical Numismatic Group, pp. 1–32.

Baltrusch E. (2002), Die Juden und das Römische Reich: Geschichte einer konfliktreichen Beziehung Gebundene, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.

Coskun A. (2012), Amici Populi Romani. Prosopographie der auswärtigen Freunde Roms, Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies.

Dąbrowa E. (2014), “The Parthian Aristocracy: its Social Position and Political Activity”, Parthica, No. 15, pp. 53–62.

Dio Cassius (1924), Roman History, Vol. VII, Books 56–60, Loeb Classical Library 175, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Dio Cassius (1925), Roman History, Vol. VIII, Books 61–70, Loeb Classical Library 176, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dio Cassius (1927), Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71–80, Loeb Classical Library 177, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Goodblatt D. (1987), “Josephus on Parthian Babylonia (Antiquities XVIII, 310–379)”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 605–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/603303

Gregoratti L. (2011), “A Parthian Harbour in the Gulf: the Characene”, Anabasis, Studia Classica et Orientalia, No. 2, pp. 209–229.

Gregoratti L. (2012), “Parthian Women in Flavius Josephus”, in M. Hirschberger (ed.), Jüdisch-hellenistische Literatur in ihrem interkulturellen Kontext, Peter Lang, New York, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 183–192.

Gregoratti L. (2017), “Sinews of the other Empire: Parthian King’s Rule over Vassal Kingdoms”, in Sinews of the Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxford, pp. 95–104.

Hinterhöller M. (2008), Der Triumphbogen des Septimius Severus und die historischen Reliefs der Partherkriege: Ein Triumphalmonument am Beginn der späten Kaiserzeit, Wissenschaftliche Studie.

Historia Augusta (1921), Vol. I: Hadrian. Aelius. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. L. Verus. Avidius Cassius. Commodus. Pertinax. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus, Loeb Classical Library 139, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1927), The Jewish War, Vol. II, Books 3–4, Loeb Classical Library 487, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1928), The Jewish War, Vol. III, Books 5–7, Loeb Classical Library 210, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1965a), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. VIII, Books 18–19, Loeb Classical Library 433, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1965b), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. IX, Book 20, Loeb Classical Library 456, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kaizer T. (2010), Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East, Franz Steiner Verlag.

Liebowitz E. (2018), “A New Perspective on Two Jewish Queens in the Second Temple Period: Alexandra of Judaea and Helene of Adiabene”, in Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism, Brill, pp. 41–65. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004366985_005

Luttwack E. (1979), The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Magie D. (1950), Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century After Christ, Princeton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400887743

Marciak M. (2012), Izates and Helena of Adiabene: a study on literary traditions and history, Leiden.

Marciak M. (2017), Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene. Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West, Brill, Leiden and Boston. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004350724

Marciak M. (2018), “Royal Converts from Adiabene and the Archaeology of Jerusalem”, Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, No. 21, pp. 29–58.

McClister D. (2008), Ethnicity and Jewish Identity in Josephus, PhD thesis, University of Florida.

Millar F. (1993), The Roman Near East: 31 BC–AD 337, Harvard University Press, London and Cambridge, Mass.

Montgomery J. A. (1921), “The Religion of Flavius Josephus”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 277–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1451151

Neusner J. (1964), “The Conversion of Adiabene to Judaism: A New Perspective”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 60–66. https://doi.org/10.2307/3264908

Neusner J. (1965), A History of the Jews in Babylonia. I. The Parthian Period, Leiden.

Neusner J. (2009), “Judeo-Persian communities iii. Parthian and Sasanian periods”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XV/1, pp. 96–103.

Olbrycht M. J. (2013), Imperium Parthicum. Kryzys i odbudowa państwa Arsakidów w pierwszej połowie pierwszego wieku po Chrystusie, Historia Iagellonica.

Palermo R. (2019), On the Edge of Empires. North Mesopotamia During the Roman Period (2nd – 4th c. CE), Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315648255

Pennachietti F. A. (1987), “L’Iscrizione bilingue greco-parthica dell’ Eracle di Seleucia”, Mesopotamia, No. 22, pp. 169–185.

Rajak T. (1998), “The Parthians in Josephus”, in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 309–324.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1924), Velleius Paterculus. Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Loeb Classical Library 152, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Sartre M. (1991), L’Orient romain. Provinces et sociétés provinciales en Méditerranée orientale d’Auguste aux Sévères (31 av. J.-C. – 235 ap. J.-C), Le Seuil.

Schlude J. (2017), Arsacids, Romans and Local Elites: Cross-Cultural Interactions of the Parthian Empire, Oxbow Books.

Schuol M. (2000), Die Charakene: ein mesopotamisches Königreich in hellenistisch-parthischer Zeit, Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Seland E. H. (2017), Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxbow Books.

Sellwood D. (1983), “Adiabene”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I/5, pp. 456–459.

Smith M. (1987), “Asinaeus and Anileus”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 7, p. 765.

Suetonius (1917), Lives of the Caesars, Vol. I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula, Loeb Classical Library 31, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937a), Annals: Books 4–6, 11–12, Loeb Classical Library 312, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937b), Annals: Books 13–16, Loeb Classical Library 322, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thomas M. (2020), “The Conversions of Adiabene and Edessa in Syriac Christianity and Judaism: The Relations of Jews and Christians in Northern Mesopotamia in Antiquity”, Concordia Theological Journal, Vol. 7:1, pp. 10–33.

van Wijlick H. (2013), Rome and Near Eastern Kingdoms and Principalities, 44–31 BC: A Study of Political Relations During Civil War, Durham University.

Wolski J. (1966), “Les Achéménides et les Arsacides”, Syria, Vol. 43, pp. 65–89. https://doi.org/10.3406/syria.1966.5906

Wolski J. (1989), “Sur l’impéralisme des Parthes Arsacides”, in L. De Meyer, E. Haerinck (éds), Archaeologia iranica et orientalis. Miscellanea in honorem Louis Vanden Berghe, Vol. II, Gand, pp. 637–650.

Alon G. (1984), The Jews in their Land in the Talmudic Age (70–640 CE), The Magnes Press, Jerusalem.

Angeli Bertinelli M.G. (1976), “I Romani oltre l’Eufrate nel II secolo d. C. (le province di Assiria, di Meopotamia e di Osroene)”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Principat. Politische Geschichte, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin & New York, Bd. II. 9.1, pp. 3–45. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110887488-002

Assar G. (2017), “An Audience with King Artabanus IV of Parthia: The Numismatic Legacy of the AD 22 Jewish Revolt”, in Iranian Numismatic Studies. A Volume in Honor of Stephen Album, Classical Numismatic Group, pp. 1–32.

Baltrusch E. (2002), Die Juden und das Römische Reich: Geschichte einer konfliktreichen Beziehung Gebundene, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.

Coskun A. (2012), Amici Populi Romani. Prosopographie der auswärtigen Freunde Roms, Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies.

Dąbrowa E. (2014), “The Parthian Aristocracy: its Social Position and Political Activity”, Parthica, No. 15, pp. 53–62.

Dio Cassius (1924), Roman History, Vol. VII, Books 56–60, Loeb Classical Library 175, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

Dio Cassius (1925), Roman History, Vol. VIII, Books 61–70, Loeb Classical Library 176, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dio Cassius (1927), Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71–80, Loeb Classical Library 177, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Goodblatt D. (1987), “Josephus on Parthian Babylonia (Antiquities XVIII, 310–379)”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 605–622. https://doi.org/10.2307/603303

Gregoratti L. (2011), “A Parthian Harbour in the Gulf: the Characene”, Anabasis, Studia Classica et Orientalia, No. 2, pp. 209–229.

Gregoratti L. (2012), “Parthian Women in Flavius Josephus”, in M. Hirschberger (ed.), Jüdisch-hellenistische Literatur in ihrem interkulturellen Kontext, Peter Lang, New York, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 183–192.

Gregoratti L. (2017), “Sinews of the other Empire: Parthian King’s Rule over Vassal Kingdoms”, in Sinews of the Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxford, pp. 95–104.

Hinterhöller M. (2008), Der Triumphbogen des Septimius Severus und die historischen Reliefs der Partherkriege: Ein Triumphalmonument am Beginn der späten Kaiserzeit, Wissenschaftliche Studie.

Historia Augusta (1921), Vol. I: Hadrian. Aelius. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. L. Verus. Avidius Cassius. Commodus. Pertinax. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus, Loeb Classical Library 139, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1927), The Jewish War, Vol. II, Books 3–4, Loeb Classical Library 487, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1928), The Jewish War, Vol. III, Books 5–7, Loeb Classical Library 210, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. https://doi.org/10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_war.1927

Josephus (1965a), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. VIII, Books 18–19, Loeb Classical Library 433, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Josephus (1965b), Jewish Antiquities, Vol. IX, Book 20, Loeb Classical Library 456, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kaizer T. (2010), Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East, Franz Steiner Verlag.

Liebowitz E. (2018), “A New Perspective on Two Jewish Queens in the Second Temple Period: Alexandra of Judaea and Helene of Adiabene”, in Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism, Brill, pp. 41–65. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004366985_005

Luttwack E. (1979), The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Magie D. (1950), Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century After Christ, Princeton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400887743

Marciak M. (2012), Izates and Helena of Adiabene: a study on literary traditions and history, Leiden.

Marciak M. (2017), Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene. Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West, Brill, Leiden and Boston. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004350724

Marciak M. (2018), “Royal Converts from Adiabene and the Archaeology of Jerusalem”, Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, No. 21, pp. 29–58.

McClister D. (2008), Ethnicity and Jewish Identity in Josephus, PhD thesis, University of Florida.

Millar F. (1993), The Roman Near East: 31 BC–AD 337, Harvard University Press, London and Cambridge, Mass.

Montgomery J. A. (1921), “The Religion of Flavius Josephus”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 277–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1451151

Neusner J. (1964), “The Conversion of Adiabene to Judaism: A New Perspective”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 60–66. https://doi.org/10.2307/3264908

Neusner J. (1965), A History of the Jews in Babylonia. I. The Parthian Period, Leiden.

Neusner J. (2009), “Judeo-Persian communities iii. Parthian and Sasanian periods”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XV/1, pp. 96–103.

Olbrycht M. J. (2013), Imperium Parthicum. Kryzys i odbudowa państwa Arsakidów w pierwszej połowie pierwszego wieku po Chrystusie, Historia Iagellonica.

Palermo R. (2019), On the Edge of Empires. North Mesopotamia During the Roman Period (2nd – 4th c. CE), Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315648255

Pennachietti F. A. (1987), “L’Iscrizione bilingue greco-parthica dell’ Eracle di Seleucia”, Mesopotamia, No. 22, pp. 169–185.

Rajak T. (1998), “The Parthians in Josephus”, in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 309–324.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1924), Velleius Paterculus. Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Loeb Classical Library 152, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Sartre M. (1991), L’Orient romain. Provinces et sociétés provinciales en Méditerranée orientale d’Auguste aux Sévères (31 av. J.-C. – 235 ap. J.-C), Le Seuil.

Schlude J. (2017), Arsacids, Romans and Local Elites: Cross-Cultural Interactions of the Parthian Empire, Oxbow Books.

Schuol M. (2000), Die Charakene: ein mesopotamisches Königreich in hellenistisch-parthischer Zeit, Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Seland E. H. (2017), Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxbow Books.

Sellwood D. (1983), “Adiabene”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I/5, pp. 456–459.

Smith M. (1987), “Asinaeus and Anileus”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 7, p. 765.

Suetonius (1917), Lives of the Caesars, Vol. I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula, Loeb Classical Library 31, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937a), Annals: Books 4–6, 11–12, Loeb Classical Library 312, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937b), Annals: Books 13–16, Loeb Classical Library 322, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thomas M. (2020), “The Conversions of Adiabene and Edessa in Syriac Christianity and Judaism: The Relations of Jews and Christians in Northern Mesopotamia in Antiquity”, Concordia Theological Journal, Vol. 7:1, pp. 10–33.

van Wijlick H. (2013), Rome and Near Eastern Kingdoms and Principalities, 44–31 BC: A Study of Political Relations During Civil War, Durham University.

Wolski J. (1966), “Les Achéménides et les Arsacides”, Syria, Vol. 43, pp. 65–89. https://doi.org/10.3406/syria.1966.5906

Wolski J. (1989), “Sur l’impéralisme des Parthes Arsacides”, in L. De Meyer, E. Haerinck (éds), Archaeologia iranica et orientalis. Miscellanea in honorem Louis Vanden Berghe, Vol. II, Gand, pp. 637–650.

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Montgomery J. A. (1921), “The Religion of Flavius Josephus”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 277–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/1451151

Neusner J. (1964), “The Conversion of Adiabene to Judaism: A New Perspective”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 60–66. https://doi.org/10.2307/3264908

Neusner J. (1965), A History of the Jews in Babylonia. I. The Parthian Period, Leiden.

Neusner J. (2009), “Judeo-Persian communities iii. Parthian and Sasanian periods”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XV/1, pp. 96–103.

Olbrycht M. J. (2013), Imperium Parthicum. Kryzys i odbudowa państwa Arsakidów w pierwszej połowie pierwszego wieku po Chrystusie, Historia Iagellonica.

Palermo R. (2019), On the Edge of Empires. North Mesopotamia During the Roman Period (2nd – 4th c. CE), Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315648255

Pennachietti F. A. (1987), “L’Iscrizione bilingue greco-parthica dell’ Eracle di Seleucia”, Mesopotamia, No. 22, pp. 169–185.

Rajak T. (1998), “The Parthians in Josephus”, in Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 309–324.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1924), Velleius Paterculus. Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Loeb Classical Library 152, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Sartre M. (1991), L’Orient romain. Provinces et sociétés provinciales en Méditerranée orientale d’Auguste aux Sévères (31 av. J.-C. – 235 ap. J.-C), Le Seuil.

Schlude J. (2017), Arsacids, Romans and Local Elites: Cross-Cultural Interactions of the Parthian Empire, Oxbow Books.

Schuol M. (2000), Die Charakene: ein mesopotamisches Königreich in hellenistisch-parthischer Zeit, Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Seland E. H. (2017), Sinews of Empire: Networks in the Roman Near East and Beyond, Oxbow Books.

Sellwood D. (1983), “Adiabene”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I/5, pp. 456–459.

Smith M. (1987), “Asinaeus and Anileus”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 7, p. 765.

Suetonius (1917), Lives of the Caesars, Vol. I: Julius. Augustus. Tiberius. Gaius. Caligula, Loeb Classical Library 31, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937a), Annals: Books 4–6, 11–12, Loeb Classical Library 312, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tacitus (1937b), Annals: Books 13–16, Loeb Classical Library 322, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thomas M. (2020), “The Conversions of Adiabene and Edessa in Syriac Christianity and Judaism: The Relations of Jews and Christians in Northern Mesopotamia in Antiquity”, Concordia Theological Journal, Vol. 7:1, pp. 10–33.

van Wijlick H. (2013), Rome and Near Eastern Kingdoms and Principalities, 44–31 BC: A Study of Political Relations During Civil War, Durham University.

Wolski J. (1966), “Les Achéménides et les Arsacides”, Syria, Vol. 43, pp. 65–89. https://doi.org/10.3406/syria.1966.5906

Wolski J. (1989), “Sur l’impéralisme des Parthes Arsacides”, in L. De Meyer, E. Haerinck (éds), Archaeologia iranica et orientalis. Miscellanea in honorem Louis Vanden Berghe, Vol. II, Gand, pp. 637–650.